HUBUNGAN ANTARA KONSEPSI PENILAIAN DAN KECEMASAN SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR DI KELAS MATEMATIKA

Veny Wulan Suci, Yoppy Wahyu Purnomo

Abstract


Bahasa

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara konsepsi siswa tentang penilaian dan kecemasan mereka terhadap matematika. Subjek penelitian adalah 40 siswa di salah satu sekolah dasar negeri di Bekasi. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode survei dengan desain cross-sectional. Adapun instrumen penelitian yaitu angket konsepsi tentang penilaian dan angket kecemasan matematika. Pengujian hipotesis dilakukan dengan uji korelasi Spearman’s rho. Temuan penelitian mengindikasikan bahwa siswa yang cenderung memiliki konsepsi penilaian sebagai cara-cara yang dilakukan guru untuk memberikannya informasi terkait apa, bagaimana, mengapa tentang belajarnya berkorelasi secara signifikan terhadap penurunan kecemasan mereka terhadap matematika. Sebaliknya, siswa yang memiliki konsepsi bahwa penilaian yang dilakukan guru sebagai sebuah cara untuk membandingkan performanya dengan kriteria-kriteria eksternal, maka secara signifikan berkorelasi terhadap peningkatan kecemasan matematika. Temuan ini juga mengindikasikan perlunya mengubah paradigma teaching to the test ke arah assessment as learning untuk membentuk sebuah konsepsi yang utuh terhadap penilaian.

English

This study aims to examine the relationship between students' conceptions about assessment and their mathematics anxiety. Participants in this study were 40 elementary school students in one of the public elementary schools in Bekasi. This research employed survey method with cross-sectional design. Instruments in this study consisted of conception about assessment and mathematics anxiety questionnaires. Hypothesis testing is done with correlation of Spearman's rho. The findings of this study reveal that students who tended to view assessment as a process that supports learning correlated significantly to the reduction of their anxiety towards mathematics. On the other case, students who have the conception that the assessment is used only as comparing between performance and external criterions, it significantly correlates with the increase of mathematical anxiety. This study also indicates the need to change the paradigm of “teaching to the test” towards “assessment as learning” to establish a complete conception of the assessment.


 


Keywords


Konsepsi Penilaian; Kecemasan Matematika; Siswa Sekolah Dasar; Pembelajaran Matematika

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References


Ary, D., Jacobs, L., & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8 ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Moore, A. M. (2009). Mathematics anxiety and the affective drop in performance. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27(3), 197-205. doi: 10.1177/0734282908330580

Brown, G. T., & Hirschfeld, G. H. (2007). Students' Conceptions of Assessment and Mathematics: Self-Regulation Raises Achievement. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 7, 63-74.

Brown, G. T., & Hirschfeld, G. H. (2008). Students’ conceptions of assessment: Links to outcomes. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 15(1), 3-17.

Brown, G. T., Hui, S. K., Flora, W., & Kennedy, K. J. (2011). Teachers’ conceptions of assessment in Chinese contexts: A tripartite model of accountability, improvement, and irrelevance. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(5), 307-320.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6 ed.). New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, USA and Canada.

Falchikov, N. (2005). Improving assessment through student involvement: practical solutions for learning in higher and further education. Oxon: Routledge Falmer.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Furinghetti, F., & Pehkonen, E. (2002). Rethinking characterizations of beliefs. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: A hidden variable in mathematics education? (Vol. 31, pp. 39-57). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Goldin, G. A. (2002). Affect, meta-affect, and mathematical belief structures. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: A hidden variable in mathematics education? (Vol. 31, pp. 59-72). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Griffin, T. D., & Ohlsson, S. (2001). Beliefs versus knowledge: A necessary distinction for predicting, explaining and assessing conceptual change. In J. Moore & K. Stenning (Eds.), Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: Edinburgh, Scotland. Retrieved January (Vol. 13, pp. 364-369). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kasih, P. A., & Purnomo, Y. W. (2016). Peningkatan Hasil Belajar Matematika Siswa Sekolah Dasar Melalui Pembelajaran Berbasis Penilaian. Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education, 1(1), 69-78.

Martinez, J. G. R., & Martinez, N. C. (1996). Math without fear. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

McMillan, J. H. (2007). Formative classroom assessment: The key to improving student achievement. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.), Formative classroom assessment: Theory into practice (pp. 1-7). New York: Teachers College Press.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Op’t Eynde, P., De Corte, E., & Verschaffel, L. (2002). Framing students’ mathematics-related beliefs. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: A hidden variable in mathematics education? (Vol. 31, pp. 13-37). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of educational research, 62(3), 307-332. doi: 10.3102/00346543062003307

Purnomo, Y. W. (2013). Keefektifan penilaian formatif terhadap hasil belajar matematika mahasiswa ditinjau dari motivsi belajar. Paper presented at the Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika dan Pendidikan Matematika.

Purnomo, Y. W. (2014). Assessment-Based Learning: Sebuah Tinjauan untuk Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar dan Pemahaman Matematis. Sigma, VI(1), 22-33.

Purnomo, Y. W. (2015). Pengembangan desain pembelajaran berbasis penilaian dalam pembelajaran matematika. Cakrawala Pendidikan, XXXIV(2), 182-191.

Purnomo, Y. W., Suryadi, D., & Darwis, S. (2016). Examining Pre-service Elementary School Teacher Beliefs and Instructional Practices in Mathematics Class. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 8(4), 629-642.

Ramirez, G., Gunderson, E. A., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2013). Math anxiety, working memory, and math achievement in early elementary school. Journal of Cognition and Development, 14(2), 187-202. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2012.664593

Raymond, A. M. (1997). Inconsistency between a beginning elementary school teacher's mathematics beliefs and teaching practice. Journal for research in mathematics education, 28(5), 550-576.

Richardson, F. C., & Suinn, R. M. (1972). The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale: Psychometric data. Journal of Counseling psychology, 19(6), 551–554. doi: 10.1037/h0033456

Thompson, A. G. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and conceptions: A synthesis of the research. In D. A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 127-146). New York: Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc.

Wigfield, A., & Meece, J. L. (1988). Math anxiety in elementary and secondary school students. Journal of educational psychology, 80(2), 210.

Witt, M. (2012). The impact of mathematics anxiety on primary school children's working memory. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 8(2), 263-274. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v8i2.458

Wu, S. S., Barth, M., Amin, H., Malcarne, V., & Menon, V. (2012). Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement. Frontiers in psychology, 3(162). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00162

Yüksel-Şahin, F. (2008). Mathematics anxiety among 4 th and 5 th grade Turkish elementary school students. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 3(3), 179-192.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L., & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8 ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Moore, A. M. (2009). Mathematics anxiety and the affective drop in performance. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27(3), 197-205. doi: 10.1177/0734282908330580

Brown, G. T., & Hirschfeld, G. H. (2007). Students' Conceptions of Assessment and Mathematics: Self-Regulation Raises Achievement. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 7, 63-74.

Brown, G. T., & Hirschfeld, G. H. (2008). Students’ conceptions of assessment: Links to outcomes. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 15(1), 3-17.

Brown, G. T., Hui, S. K., Flora, W., & Kennedy, K. J. (2011). Teachers’ conceptions of assessment in Chinese contexts: A tripartite model of accountability, improvement, and irrelevance. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(5), 307-320.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6 ed.). New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, USA and Canada.

Falchikov, N. (2005). Improving assessment through student involvement: practical solutions for learning in higher and further education. Oxon: Routledge Falmer.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Furinghetti, F., & Pehkonen, E. (2002). Rethinking characterizations of beliefs. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: A hidden variable in mathematics education? (Vol. 31, pp. 39-57). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Goldin, G. A. (2002). Affect, meta-affect, and mathematical belief structures. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: A hidden variable in mathematics education? (Vol. 31, pp. 59-72). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Griffin, T. D., & Ohlsson, S. (2001). Beliefs versus knowledge: A necessary distinction for predicting, explaining and assessing conceptual change. In J. Moore & K. Stenning (Eds.), Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: Edinburgh, Scotland. Retrieved January (Vol. 13, pp. 364-369). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kasih, P. A., & Purnomo, Y. W. (2016). Peningkatan Hasil Belajar Matematika Siswa Sekolah Dasar Melalui Pembelajaran Berbasis Penilaian. Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education, 1(1), 69-78.

Martinez, J. G. R., & Martinez, N. C. (1996). Math without fear. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

McMillan, J. H. (2007). Formative classroom assessment: The key to improving student achievement. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.), Formative classroom assessment: Theory into practice (pp. 1-7). New York: Teachers College Press.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Op’t Eynde, P., De Corte, E., & Verschaffel, L. (2002). Framing students’ mathematics-related beliefs. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: A hidden variable in mathematics education? (Vol. 31, pp. 13-37). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of educational research, 62(3), 307-332. doi: 10.3102/00346543062003307

Purnomo, Y. W. (2013). Keefektifan penilaian formatif terhadap hasil belajar matematika mahasiswa ditinjau dari motivsi belajar. Paper presented at the Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika dan Pendidikan Matematika.

Purnomo, Y. W. (2014). Assessment-Based Learning: Sebuah Tinjauan untuk Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar dan Pemahaman Matematis. Sigma, VI(1), 22-33.

Purnomo, Y. W. (2015). Pengembangan desain pembelajaran berbasis penilaian dalam pembelajaran matematika. Cakrawala Pendidikan, XXXIV(2), 182-191.

Purnomo, Y. W., Suryadi, D., & Darwis, S. (2016). Examining Pre-service Elementary School Teacher Beliefs and Instructional Practices in Mathematics Class. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 8(4), 629-642.

Ramirez, G., Gunderson, E. A., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2013). Math anxiety, working memory, and math achievement in early elementary school. Journal of Cognition and Development, 14(2), 187-202. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2012.664593

Raymond, A. M. (1997). Inconsistency between a beginning elementary school teacher's mathematics beliefs and teaching practice. Journal for research in mathematics education, 28(5), 550-576.

Richardson, F. C., & Suinn, R. M. (1972). The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale: Psychometric data. Journal of Counseling psychology, 19(6), 551–554. doi: 10.1037/h0033456

Thompson, A. G. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and conceptions: A synthesis of the research. In D. A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 127-146). New York: Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc.

Wigfield, A., & Meece, J. L. (1988). Math anxiety in elementary and secondary school students. Journal of educational psychology, 80(2), 210.

Witt, M. (2012). The impact of mathematics anxiety on primary school children's working memory. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 8(2), 263-274. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v8i2.458

Wu, S. S., Barth, M., Amin, H., Malcarne, V., & Menon, V. (2012). Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement. Frontiers in psychology, 3(162). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00162

Yüksel-Şahin, F. (2008). Mathematics anxiety among 4 th and 5 th grade Turkish elementary school students. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 3(3), 179-192.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/beta.v9i1.860

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